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The first documented mention of the town of Sandweier is in the year 1303 but finds indicate that this area was settled as early as 700 BC. The Romans occupied this site during their rule in this area calling their settlement "Vicus Bibiensis". In 1472, the town was called Santwiler; sant meaning sand, and wiler being a house or farm built in the Roman style. From the time of the Romans, till the 14th century there is no evidence that there was any form of permanent habitation.

The village was the property of the Sirs von Eberstein in the Surrey County of Ortenau in the 14th century and until the 19th century was part of the Office of Stollhofen. Sovereignty of the town was held by the Margraves of Baden-Baden. In the year 1311 the widow of Margrave Rudolph II of Baden, Adelheid von Ochsenstein, transferred her court from Sandweier to the cloister Lichtental. The Imperial fief owners of the Windeck also had property in this area and for this reason, there were several manor-houses in Sandweier in the 15th and16th centuries.

The oldest preserved building in the town is the little hunting castle built by the Margrave Ernst Friedrich of Baden-Durlach in 1602. In those days, the house was surrounded by forest and served as accommodation for the court society during hunting season. The castle later became the town hall and was the only building to survive the burning of the village in 1689 during the Thirty Years War.

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